Ironi Negara Maritim

Dua pertiga lebih wilayah Republik Indonesia berupa air (laut dan sungai). Namun, 91 persen pergerakan barang menggunakan angkutan darat. Ditambah dengan lewat angkutan penyeberangan (0,99 persen) dan angkutan kereta api (0,70 persen), keseluruhan angkutan berbasis darat mencapai 93 persen. Porsi angkutan udara hanya 0,55 persen. Selebihnya lewat angkutan laut (7,1 persen) dan angkutan sungai (0,01 persen).

Tak heran jika logistics costs di Indonesia sangat mahal, mencapai 27 persen dari produk domestic bruto (PDB). Bandingkan dengan Malaysia sebesar 13 persen PDB, Thailand sebesar 20 persen PDB, dan Vietnam sebesar 25 persen PDB. Di kawasan ASEAN, Singapura yang paling murah (8 persen PDB). Singapura mengalahkan Amerika Serikat (9,9 persen PDB) dan Jepang (10,6 persen PDB). Lihat Center of Logistics and Supply Chain Studies ITB, Asosiasi Logistik Indonesia, Panteia/NIA, dan The World Bank, State of Logistics Indonesia 2013.

Ukuran lain yang lazim dipakai untuk membandingkan perbandingan kinerja logistik antarnegara adalah Logistics Performance Index (LPI). Walaupun telah menunjukkan perbaikan dalam skor dan ranking sejak 2012, tetap saja Indonesia tidak bisa mengejar ketertinggalannya dari Negara-negara di atas. Bahkan Indonesia telah disusul oleh Vietnam.

lpi_indonesia

lpi

Komponen terbesar dari ongkos logistik adalah ongkos persediaan (inventory). Akibat sistem logistik yang buruk, perusahaan harus menumpuk inventori lebih banyak, tidak bias menerapkan just in time inventory system. Betapa banyak uang “mati” atau terpendam di gudang. Biaya bunga bank yang relatif tinggi semakin membebani.

Komponen kedua terbesar adalah ongkos angkut, karena bagaimanapun ongkos angkut barang lewat darat jauh lebih mahal daripada ongkos angkut lewat laut dan sungai. Semakin jauh jarak tempuh kian besar pula ongkos angkut lewat darat.

Jika dalam jangka menengah angkutan barang lewat laut bisa meningkat hingga 50 persen dari keseluruhan angkutan barang, dapat dibayangkan pengaruhnya terhadap perekonomian. Bahkan, sangat mudah membayangkan pembenahan angkutan laut bakal menjadi pengakselerasi pertumbuhan dan daya saing perekonomian nasional.

Yang lebih penting lagi, perekonomian domestic bakal lebih terintegrasi. Kalau sudah begitu, tak perlu lagi muncul kekhawatiran berlebihan kita bakal tersungkur memasuki Masyarakat ASEAN.

About faisal basri

Faisal Basri is currently senior lecturer at the Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia and Chief of Advisory Board of Indonesia Research & Strategic Analysis (IRSA). His area of expertise and discipline covers Economics, Political Economy, and Economic Development. His prior engagement includes Economic Adviser to the President of Republic of Indonesia on economic affairs (2000); Head of the Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics at the University of Indonesia (1995-98); and Director of Institute for Economic and Social Research at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Indonesia (1993-1995), the Commissioner of the Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (2000-2006); Rector, Perbanas Business School (1999-2003). He was the founder of the National Mandate Party where he was served in the Party as the first Secretary General and then the Deputy Chairman responsible for research and development. He quit the Party in January 2001. He has actively been involved in several NGOs, among others is The Indonesian Movement. Faisal Basri was educated at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Indonesia where he received his BA in 1985 and graduated with an MA in economics from Vanderbilt University, USA, in 1988.
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